Shingle roofing - a modern use of an antique material

 Shingle roofing - a modern use of an antique material



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Shingles are an environmentally friendly, inexpensive and durable roofing material. In addition, she is able to transform a residential building, make it more attractive. The peculiarity of the shingles is that it can be made independently, although it is rather difficult to lay it, and the cost is not encouraging.

What is shingle for a roof

Shingles are wooden plates. Usually it is aspen, cedar or oak. Coniferous shingles such as spruce and pine can be used to cover the roof. Resins, which are necessarily present in such wood, prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi, which allows them to be a natural antiseptic.

Shingles give the house its own identity

Material characteristic

The peculiarity of the wooden covering is that it breathes freely. This is due to periodic swelling due to wetting and drying out. The technical characteristics of the shingles depend on the wood used to make the plates.

You can make shingles yourself

Table: technical characteristics of wood of different species

MaterialDensity, kg / m3A typeShrinkage,%Resinousness
Aspen495Sheet2,6Not
Larch660Sheet0,3Not
Cedar370Coniferous1,2Yes
Pine513Coniferous0,4Yes
Oak720Deciduous0,4Not
Beech680Deciduous0,3Not

Advantages and disadvantages

Shingles have many advantages. Among the main ones are:

  • resistance to temperature extremes and high humidity;
  • environmental safety - in addition to the fact that only natural materials are used for shingles, various chemicals are also not used in the process of making the plates;
  • there is no need for additional processing, in particular, the shingle roof does not need to be painted;
  • resistance to decay due to the presence of resins and tannins;
  • soundproofing and waterproofing properties, which allows you to significantly save money when arranging a roofing pie (in this case, it consists only of a crate and a rafter system);
  • long service life;
  • aesthetic appearance.

When deciding to cover the roof with shingles, one must also remember the shortcomings of this roofing material:

  • high price;
  • the complexity of installation - for self-installation, you need to have special skills.

Shingles do not need special impregnation

How to make shingles for the roof with your own hands

You can make shingles with your own hands. For the manufacture of roofing material, trunks are selected only in perfect condition. There should be no cracks or knots on the wood. The barrel diameter is not important. The main thing is that its length is about 40–45 cm. The core of the trunk is not used for making shingles, since this part of the tree is highly susceptible to cracking. The bark is also usually peeled off.

You can harvest material for shingles at any time of the year, except for winter.

There are different tools for making shingles

After preparing the wood, the chocks are manually chopped. The plates are 3–8 mm thick and about 8–18 cm wide.

It is also possible to make shingles mechanically, but such material will be characterized by a short service life. This method involves the initial sawing of tree trunks into 80 cm long chunks, after which the shingles are made in the following order:

  1. From the chocks, you need to carve a bar of the same length and a similar section.
  2. Now the timber can be dismantled into plates using a special machine.

When choosing this method of obtaining shingles, one must take into account that the structure of the wood changes slightly, which is why the service life is reduced.

To make shingles mechanically, you can use a machine according to old drawings. To make such a device, you need to take a log with a diameter of 12–16 cm and a length of 3 cm. At 20 cm from the cut, make a hole of 3 mm, where you insert a metal kingpin, which will allow you to fix the log in a wooden block. At a distance of 1 m from the hole, it is necessary to install a staple knife at an angle, it will cut the plates from the log.

Video: making shingles in a mechanized way

Shingle roofing

The peculiarity of the shingle roof is that the arrangement of the roofing cake is not required, in particular, the laying of waterproofing material is not always necessary. Roofing material can be used as a preventive measure, but this layer can impede the free movement of air in the under-roof space, which will lead to decay of the tree.

Arrangement of waterproofing for shingles is optional, but desirable

Particular attention must be paid to the crate. It can be solid and sparse. In the second case, for arranging the lathing, you can choose a bar with a section of 5x5 cm. The step of the lathing depends on the size of the shingles, it is advisable to make it no more than 10 cm. One row of shingles must be attached to each horizontal bar.

In general, a shingle roofing cake looks like this:

  • vapor barrier - serves to protect not so much the shingles as the rafter system from moisture from the living quarters;
  • waterproofing - optional layer;
  • crate;
  • directly shingles, laid in several layers.

Shingles are stacked in several layers

Tools and materials

For fastening the shingles plates, special nails are used. Their length ranges from 4 to 6 cm. ПBeforehand, they must be boiled in drying oil, which will prevent the rusting process due to exposure to moisture. As for the tool, then, to work with shingles, you need a specific list:

  • a jack for lifting material to the roof;
  • the stabbing blade allows you to split chocks into plates;
  • the beater has the same function as the stabbing blade;
  • a trowel is needed to cover crevices and gaps with mastic;
  • center punch - a tool for marking, which greatly simplifies the process of laying shingles.

    Center punch allows you to mark the lathing

Video: shingle waving at work

Drawings and layouts

As such, there is no need to draw up drawings before laying the shingles on the roof. The preparatory stage involves determining the angle of inclination of the slope and the required number of layers of material.

It is recommended to lay shingles in the direction from left to right.

A laying scheme is used in which each subsequent layer overlaps the previous one, while the number of layers on the eaves should be one more than on the rest of the roof surface. This will significantly increase the service life of the shingle roof and protect the eaves overhang from water flowing down from the slopes.

How to lay shingles on the roof

The minimum level of inclination of the roof for shingles should be 15 degrees. It is necessary to lay the material with an overlap, and it can be both horizontal and vertical. The amount of overlap is selected in accordance with the number of shingle layers:

  • 2 layers - the amount of overlap is equal to half the length of the plate;
  • 3 layers - ⅔ the length of the plate;
  • 4 layers - ¾ the length of the plate;
  • 5 layers - ⅘ the length of the plate.

These values ​​are relevant for each subsequent layer.

If the premises are non-residential, it is recommended to lay the shingles in two layers, residential - there should be 3-4 layers.

The roofing installation process is as follows:

  1. You need to start work from the overhangs, gradually moving up. The first row is laid with stitches forward, since when the plates are made by hand on their own, they take on a slightly curved appearance. All others are mounted with pins down. The first row should fit from left to right, each subsequent row in the opposite direction.

    Plates need to be staggered

  2. Fastening the material to the lathing can be done using special drape screws. Before using them, it is imperative to boil them in drying oil, which will significantly increase the service life.

    The nail holes on the shingle plates can be made in advance

  3. On slopes, it is recommended to lay one more shingle layer, since at these points the roof will experience more significant loads than in other areas.
  4. In places of valleys it is also recommended to lay out an additional layer of shingles.

Video: do-it-yourself installation of shingles on the roof

Installation errors

When self-covering the roof with shingles, some mistakes are possible, especially if there was no such experience before:

  • a large step of the crate - for shingles, it is better to equip a solid crate or with a small step, no more than 10 cm;
  • insufficient overlap - because of this, moisture will penetrate into the under-roof space;
  • improper processing of the plates, in particular, the bark and core were not cut off before the split;
  • lack of additional layers on eaves and in valleys, which can cause leakage.

Operating rules

Shingles are roofing materials that do not require special maintenance:

  • during the first year of operation, conduct an audit every month to timely eliminate installation errors;
  • timely carry out repair work, which in most cases consists in replacing damaged plates.

Life time

Shingles are characterized by long-term operation. The value of this parameter can reach 50-60 years and more. The service life in most cases depends on the correctness of the workpiece:

  • you need to make blanks for shingles only from spring to autumn;
  • before splitting the wood, it is imperative to remove the bark and core (the bark is subject to decay, and the core is cracked).

Shingle roof repair

One of the problems faced by the owners of houses with shingles is the darkening of the roofing material. It is very easy to solve this problem. It is enough to wash the roof surface with water and bleach.

Replaceable shingle plate should have slightly less space for it

After 8–10 years of shingle operation as a roofing material, it may be necessary to replace the plates. Such a need is associated with periodic waterlogging of the material and its drying. Replacing the plates takes place in the following order:

  1. Remove the damaged area. To do this, under the plate that is located above the damaged one, you need to drive in a wedge and slightly raise it.
  2. Break the damaged plate with a chisel and remove.
  3. Cut off the nail caps with a hacksaw.
  4. The new plate can now be mounted. If the board does not fit into the available space as it should, it is recommended to trim from the thin end. It is necessary to fit the replaced element into place by tapping. It is imperative to nail the shingles to the crate with nails scalded in linseed oil.
  5. Roofing glue should be applied to the nail heads.

In the event that not one plate is replaced, but several rows, then you need to start from the bottom one, while laying not close, but with a small gap. For this, the new shingle board should be 12-13 mm already replaceable.

Testimonials

Shingles as a durable and reliable roofing material will last a long time, but only if the plates are made correctly and the installation technology is followed. This will create a very unusual exterior for your home.


Flexible shingles: DIY installation with step by step photos

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If flexible shingles are chosen as the roofing material, do-it-yourself installation can be carried out by a home craftsman without helpers. Do not confuse flexible roofing with soft, which is presented in the form of roll materials used for flat roofs.

Installation of flexible shingles yourself


Varieties of folded joints

Mounting scheme

The advantages of this method of arranging sheet coverings include:

  • ease of stacking sheet material, characterized by a relatively low weight
  • relatively low cost of blanks from sheet steel
  • high quality and reliability of the connecting seams.

All of the above advantages make it possible to use this coating formation technique in the repair of buildings of any profile, as well as in the manufacture of roofs in newly built houses. This method is especially popular in low-rise (private) construction.

We note in passing that when installing the base under the seam cover, a classic "roofing pie" is prepared, which includes elements of hydro, steam and thermal insulation. At the same time, the roofing material itself, cut and laid in the form of strips of rolled steel, has a decorative polymer coating that sets its color scheme.

Scheme of connecting sheets

Steel blanks are laid on the roof lathing with pre-measured longitudinal strips, which may not always be solid. For high-quality joining of individual flooring strips, a special type of connection is used - the so-called "recumbent" fold, which has a flat shape and is hardly noticeable against the background of the coating.

Types of seams

Please note that the longitudinal edges of the workpieces are connected by the standing seam method (see figure), which forms a complex convex shape. Note also that more complex double seam locks can be used in addition to the standard single joint.


Ceramic (natural) roof tiles

This material is distinguished by its special strength, long service life, good environmental friendliness, as well as a large production guarantee. If you find any defect, you can contact a special service or an official supplier of the material so that they can replace the defective item.

The installation of natural tiles must be carried out with care, since the material is very fragile and the slightest awkward movement can lead to its deterioration.

Ceramic (natural) roof tiles for home

Natural tiles take on their special strength when firing clay in a kiln, where the air temperature exceeds 1000 ° C. After this process, the structure of the tiles becomes hard and durable, and the color is obtained with a brown or reddish tint.

Before firing in a kiln, certain types of ceramic tiles undergo a so-called glazing procedure, which gives the material excellent moisture-proof properties. In finished form, the material has the form of semicircular or wavy plates, with a weight of 2.5 and more than a kilogram and a length not exceeding 30 cm.

Advantages and disadvantages of ceramic tiles

Of the advantages, the following can be distinguished:

  • Preventive cleaning of the roof covering is required once a year
  • Excellent performance in sound insulation. Sleeping in the house is comfortable enough even in heavy rain
  • Plates are not subject to corrosion and combustion
  • The material is sufficiently resistant to severe frosts (more than 1000 freeze-thaw cycles)
  • Excellent external aesthetic appearance. Due to the variety of tones and shapes of the slabs, you can choose for any house facade
  • The clay has a porous structure, thanks to which the roof can "breathe".

The disadvantages include:

  • The huge weight of the material, which can provoke the house to settle by several centimeters
  • Reinforced roof truss structure required
  • The high cost of both production and installation work.

Installation of ceramic tiles

The installation process itself, as a rule, can be divided into two main stages:

  1. Accurate calculation and careful preparation of the base
  2. Directly laying the tiles.

The maximum roof slope for ceramic tiles is not recommended to exceed 55°... The minimum angle should not be less 22°otherwise, a good waterproofing layer and reliable ventilation must be provided.

Fastening ceramic tiles to the lathing

Each element is placed on top, overlapping the previous row, so that the special lock on each tile is closed. In the finished form, the roof looks like a "fish scale", which allows it the most effective protection against leaks.

The shingles are attached directly to the lathing using special punched nails. This method of fastening allows the roof to be more resistant to wind loads.

Roof tiles: price and reviews

With all its advantages, the main factor that can call into question the choice in favor of ceramic (natural) tiles is its high price. Today, the cost of one square meter ranges from 35 to 45 US $.

Most of the reviews found on various construction forums from owners who have covered their home with ceramic tiles are positive. Basically, everyone praises the appearance of the roof, its sophistication and beauty. Well, and about the durability of such a roof, of course, it is too early to judge. Still, after all, the service life of this coating declared by the manufacturers, without major repairs, is at least 150 years.


How, step by step, with your own hands, to attach a veranda to the house

A veranda in a private house is a covered terrace, which is often attached to the house with your own hands. It is located along the main wall and is a non-heated room for a pleasant pastime in the summer season. You can often find modern glazed terraces, you can stay in them in any weather. When making it with your own hands, it is necessary to observe the general ensemble of a country or country house, observe a single style and use the same materials in construction.

In a country house, it is better to make a summer one out of logs log terracelocated next to the main building. The construction of a veranda in wooden log cabins is often carried out in conjunction with the construction of the main house and its roof smoothly transitions into the roof of the extension, which has a wall adjacent to the house, a single material for the roof is used. In this article, we will go through step by step the main points of building a terrace of two types: open or closed, with our own hands.

  • 2 Veranda project
  • 3 How to build a veranda in a wooden house?
    • 3.1 How to start construction?
  • 4 Preparing for construction, choosing material
    • 4.1 What tool and material do we need?
  • 5 Foundation for the veranda
    • 5.1 Column foundation, how to make it?
    • 5. 2 Making a strip foundation
  • 6 We make the frame of the veranda
    • 6.1 Veranda roof
    • 6.2 Veranda floor
  • 7 Conclusion

    General provisions for the construction of a veranda

    Modern construction of country houses, country cottages, at the design stage, provide for the construction of a veranda for the house. In order to save money, the customers remove the process of building extensions, for further completion of it with their own hands. Let's consider the main points to which you need to pay attention from the generalized experience of building terraces on your own.

    The parameters by which the verandas differ:

    1. How it is located in relation to the house: corner construction, from the end or along the facade of the house.
    2. Security level: open or closed (glazed) annex. You can use modern materials to make an open veranda out of a closed veranda, this is achieved by sliding doors.
    3. In what design is it made: built-in - a foundation common with the house or attached - its own foundation.
    4. Construction shape: rectangle, semicircle, polygon.

    Veranda project

    We must not forget, when making an extension project near the house, that its purpose is to improve the performance of the main structure: to make it spacious, add beauty, comfort. The closed terrace also has the function of improving the thermal performance of the house. For the correct construction of the structure of the summer extension, it is necessary to follow the rules that are indicated in the developed project.

    What the project consists of:

    • We determine in what place the main house we will attach a veranda. The main aspect is the observance of the aesthetic perception of the entire architecture of your own house together with the veranda. Important! Experts recommend equipping a veranda in regions with high summer temperatures on the west or east side of the main house. It will be less exposed to direct sunlight.
    • It is necessary to indicate the place of entrance to the terrace (veranda). The entrance from the outside and the entrance from the house are indicated. You can make a through passage through the veranda when the door to the house is opposite the entrance to the veranda, this method is not encouraged, since there is a risk of drafts.
    • We select the type of doors and the place of their installation.
    • We decide on the total size of the summer room located along the house. The length is often taken equal to the length of the wall along which the veranda is built. The width is usually taken in the range from 3 meters to 7 meters, the main thing is to keep the proportion. Choosing the size of the veranda, we correlate them to the overall dimensions of the house in order to maintain a single ensemble of the exterior of the building.

    A good example of building a veranda with your own hands, when its project is done at the design stage of the whole house.

    Advice! Specialists do not recommend saving on the project, this will reduce the cost of documents permitting the extension and guarantee its correct erection.

    How to build a veranda in a wooden house?

    Let's go through the construction of a veranda in a wooden house step by step with our own hands. It should be noted that the extension to the house can be started only after its complete shrinkage. Log houses, or made of timber, sit down actively for three years, during this period it is better not to build an extension, otherwise the walls may be skewed. Experienced builders recommend, for those who do not wish to wait, to build a transitional structure of a veranda with a house that allows the frame to play.

    How to start construction?

    House remodeling should be reflected in permits. To obtain these permits, you must contact the regional department of architecture and submit the documents:

    1. The right to own a land plot (land on which the house stands).
    2. Design documentation for the main building.
    3. Written consent of all registered tenants in the house for reconstruction, an extension of the veranda.
    4. The developer's application for registration of the extension.

    It is advisable to start drawing up documents for a construction permit 3-4 months before the start of work. From the generalized experience of private developers, this is a lengthy procedure.

    It is possible to build an extension without permits, but in this case, problems may arise when the house is inherited or you want to sell it. The reason lies in the change in the total area of ​​the house, since the veranda is part of it, and the total area of ​​the residential building is considered with it. The BTI department can consider this as an unauthorized decision to increase the area for housing. This is especially appreciated when the terrace is covered with heating.

    There is no need to get carried away and make deviations in the dimensions of the terrace, which are indicated in the project. A simple check will easily find out, and a fine will follow with correcting the documentation. For what can be expected of unauthorized developers joining a veranda to the house specified in the law of the Russian Federation.

    Preparing for construction, choosing material

    After determining the place of construction of the veranda, it must be prepared. The construction site begins along the selected wall, therefore, before the start of all work, you must:

    What tool and material do we need?

    When a wooden extension is made with your own hands, you need a tool:

    • Having construction skills you need: a hacksaw, an ax.
    • Power tool: sledgehammer, hammer.
    • Marking: tape measure, plumb line, level, marking cord, corner.
    • For the foundation: shovel

    If a metal frame is made, a welding unit and a grinder with a disc for cutting metal are additionally prepared. A frame of this type is considered the most economical for the construction of an extension.

    It will look better brick veranda or wooden... Important! Observe the conformity of the materials of the extension and the main house.

    A wooden summer extension requires the following material:

    • Lumber: timber, log, board, rail.
    • Elements of wooden fasteners.
    • Mixtures with protective functions for wood.
    • Building material: crushed stone, concrete.
    • You will need drying oil and roofing felt.
    • Choosing a material for the roof of the veranda.
    • Window and door systems.

    In the construction of an additional room, for summer recreation, using metal corners, instead of wooden materials use a metal profile, compositions for metal processing.

    For a better view, you can make an extension (walls and roof) of polycarbonate, the panorama will be full and panoramic. The positive properties of this material include the ability to keep heat well, it is allowed to be used for walls and roofs.

    Advice! Materials that will be used in construction and requiring pretreatment must go through this process before construction.

    The foundation for the veranda

    The first thing to do is to determine the type of foundation for your veranda. A popular species is columnar foundation, since it is not tied to the base of the capital construction (house). If the veranda is settled for a long time and thoroughly, it needs a strip foundation.

    Before making the foundation, you need to refer to the documents for the construction of the house, where it is indicated on what soil it stands, from this you can choose type of foundation for an extension... Parameters to pay attention to:

    1. What is the soil's ability to absorb moisture.
    2. What is the composition of the soil at the construction site of the veranda.
    3. To what depth does the soil freeze through in the region of residence.
    4. How close the groundwater is to the surface.
    5. General provisions of soil stability.

    Choosing the type of foundation for the veranda, we pay attention to the foundation of the main building, its structure, in what condition the load-bearing walls. After choosing the foundation, it is done soil marking for further work.

    Advice! A small wooden veranda will stand quite well on a columnar foundation at the corners of the extension. For wide and long verandas, the installation of pillars is used every 600 millimeters along the length and width of the extension.

    Columnar foundation, how to make it?

    The base (foundation) for the extension is just as important as for the main house, it must be made of high-quality material. Work order:

    1. We dig holes for pillars to a depth of at least 100 centimeters, its depth cannot be less than the depth of the foundation under the main structure. The level of soil freezing is taken into account, the hole should be deeper than this level.
    2. At the bottom of the dug holes, we make a pillow, this is a mixture of sand and gravel. The pillow can be made in layers, sand, crushed stone.
    3. Fill the pillow with concrete.
    4. We lay out support posts from brick when the main house is brick. If the main house is wooden, wooden beams are used as posts. Metal supports or asbestos pipes are used in columnar foundations for a frame veranda.

    The veranda looks beautiful when it is on the level of the 2nd floor of the house... In this case, the ground part of the extension support is displayed at the level of the main foundation under the house. When a house with a high basement, it is recommended to display the veranda according to its level.

    Making a strip foundation

    It is used if a heavy glazed veranda is planned. For its arrangement, a trench is dug around the perimeter of the future veranda, and formwork is installed. It is placed a little higher than it is planned to fill the foundation with concrete.

    After the foundation is poured with concrete, it is periodically moistened with water until it is fully formed, this is necessary for uniform solidification of the foundation.

    We make the frame of the veranda

    For a wooden house, the veranda frame begins with laying the timber on the supports in the lower harness. In the corners we use a "dovetail" for sawing, it's better join the beam at the corners... For reliability, nails are used, you can mount a dowel.

    Recommendation! Often they make the bottom harness double, then the logs and veranda racks are attached to it.

    A bar for a wooden veranda is used with a section: 100x100 or 180x80 millimeters. When logs are used in the harness, their cross-section should not be more than 120 millimeters. Supports near the wall are made higher than the rest to form a pitched roof. When the frame is mounted, horizontally installed beams are the basis for the windowsillif glazing is provided. The upper harness completes the installation of the veranda frame, it is the basis for the rafters, and creates rigidity for the entire system.

    Temporary spacers must be used to avoid skewing in the frame structure.

    Veranda roof

    After having decided on the material for covering the roof, they begin to install the sheathing on the rafters, which are attached to the upper harness.

    Structurally for verandas are offered the following types of roofing:

    • Shed roof. It is a simple construction, easy to carry out. Requires a slope from the main wall of the house towards the street.
    • Gable roof. It is used if the veranda is attached from the end of the house with a narrow side.
    • Polygonal roof. Its design is varied, the main thing is to observe the slope for water drainage.

    The rafter system is installed based on the selected material:

    • Lathing for metal tiles, slate and ondulin
    • Solid decking is made for flexible roofing materials.

    Veranda floor

    With your own hands, the floor is made simply:

    1. We install the logs on the lower trim of the veranda structure. The distance between the lags is no more than 100 centimeters. We install them perpendicular to the floorboard.
    2. We cover the logs, checked by the level of the floorboard.

    If you plan to build open verandaMany people agree on installing a floor with a slight slope for the water drain. The board is fastened with self-tapping screws, the length of which is two board widths. It is necessary to soak the floorboards with a solution that resists the creation of fungal deposits.

    Conclusion

    Some finishing elements can be carved in a wooden veranda. The arrangement of furniture on the terrace is of great importance, it will create an interior and add coziness. Flowers and plants will enliven the room, give the feeling of a continuation of the residential building.


    Manufacturing of lathing and vapor barrier

    1. Manufacturing of lathing. For the lathing, take wooden blocks, they are lighter than metal ones and are more convenient to mount. You can take boards made of spruce, pine, oak or alder. First, treat them with an antiseptic so that there is no fungus on the roof and a refractory compound. At this stage of the construction of a roof made of corrugated board, it is advisable to mount special membranes required for vapor barrier. The lathing is mounted on the rafter system.

    Consider the following points when installing the battens:

    • first reinforce the first plank along the eaves, which should be thicker than the rest. Mount the board on special slats pre-nailed to the rafter legs. The slats run perpendicularly and they are needed to provide the ventilation gap required for the profiled sheet. Then continue fixing the rest of the boards. It is convenient to start fastening from the bottom, gradually rising to the top
    • assemble the lathing structure using nails or self-tapping screws. Dowel-nails are used to fasten the boards to concrete.
    • select the step between the bars depending on the angle of the roof slope and the size of the profile. Usually the step is 50-100 cm.

    2. Vapor barrier. The vapor barrier prevents moisture from accumulating under the roof.This is a special film with membranes that release steam and prevent moisture from leaking out. Lay the film before starting the installation of the roofing from the corrugated board. Lay the vapor barrier sheets with an overlap, they are attached with special screws.


    Output

    Additionally, you can reinforce the windows with shutters so that the glass does not break during strong winds. An example of the construction is shown in the figure below. Folding is easier to make swing. You only need one large sash and the latches attached to it.

    The result is a multifunctional room, which is difficult to do without at a summer cottage. Depending on what is planned to be stored in the shed, they choose the option of insulation, inner lining.

    Anyone who knows how to hold a hammer can build such a room.

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