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Juicy and aromatic sweet peppers can be consumed as an independent dish or used in the preparation of fresh salads, stewing, and canning.
This vegetable crop can produce high yields if it is based on strong and healthy seedlings. Every novice gardener can grow it. It is only necessary to decide on the place of cultivation (in a greenhouse or on open beds) and be patient.
Preparing the soil for growing peppers
To grow sweet peppers, you need to prepare a special soil mixture in the fall season. To prepare it, you will need: one ten-liter bucket of garden soil and humus, as well as two glasses of wood ash. You can also use the second option: two buckets of garden soil, a little less than one and a half buckets of small sawdust, three glasses of wood ash and eight tablespoons of superphosphate.
To destroy harmful insects and dangerous microorganisms in the soil, it is recommended to store the prepared soil mixture on the balcony. At low temperatures, the soil is frozen, and all pests die.
On the twentieth of January, the soil must be brought into a warm room and filled with water (or a weak manganese solution) with a temperature of about 70 degrees. Immediately after watering, the soil mixture must be covered with any dense film and left to cool completely. The cooled soil should dry out well. It is recommended to loosen it thoroughly before use.
Preparing seeds for planting seedlings
Seed preparation for planting should begin with a disinfection process. This will require a saturated manganese solution. It is necessary to soak the seeds in it and leave for twenty minutes. After soaking, the seeds must be thoroughly rinsed under running water.
After that, the seeds will need a nutrient solution made from natural ingredients. For example, you can soak them in potato juice (made from frozen tubers) for at least eight hours.
The next step is hardening. After the potato juice, the seeds are washed, poured onto a damp cloth, rolled up and placed in a half-liter jar. The container with seeds is stored in a warm room during the daytime, and in the refrigerator at night. The fabric should not dry out; it is necessary to moisten it in time. This process continues for 6 days. Seeds prepared in this way will grow healthy and strong seedlings, and in the future - a large harvest.
Sowing pepper seeds for seedlings
Pepper is a delicate plant, especially young seedlings. They react negatively to the transplant. Therefore, it is advisable to immediately sow seeds not in a common box, but in separate small containers. As containers, you can use not only special pots for seedlings, but also household materials at hand (for example, cups and boxes for dairy products, juices, drinks and desserts). The main thing is that there is a drainage hole in each container.
The potting mix should fill the containers to about seventy percent. 2-3 seeds are sown in each of them. Planting depth is small - no more than 2 centimeters. All small pots, bags or jars can be put in a large box for easy transportation, then covered with thick film and transferred to a warm room with high humidity.
Seedling care rules: watering and feeding
After about a week, the first shoots will begin to appear. This means that it is time to remove the film cover. Young seedlings need light and warmth, so you need to move them to a warm and well-lit place.
At this stage of development, plants need feeding. They are brought in during watering. Wood ash is of great benefit to seedlings. It is recommended to add the ash solution to the irrigation water. It is prepared from three liters of water and three tablespoons of ash. Also during this period, plants need manganese. Young peppers can be watered with a weak solution of this drug, alternating with ash infusion.
Watering is carried out directly under the plant and in small quantities.
As the seedlings grow, strong representatives of this vegetable crop will stand out more and more, weak plants will have to be removed from the container. After the sixth leaf appears on the seedlings, experienced gardeners recommend pinching the top. This will contribute to the formation of lateral stems, on which fruits will form in the future.
When growing seedlings of peppers, it is recommended to feed it with a superphosphate solution (2 tablespoons of the drug per 2 liters of hot water). The prepared solution is added to the water during irrigation. This fertilization stimulates the formation of ovaries and fruits.
Transplanting pepper seedlings into the ground and caring for it
Pepper seedlings can be grown in greenhouse conditions or in ordinary open beds. Before planting seedlings, it is necessary to prepare the holes and fill them with a special nutrient mixture of humus, wood ash, one spoon of superphosphate and a small amount of bird droppings. After thoroughly mixing all the components, the wells are watered abundantly with water.
The distance between the seedlings is at least 30 centimeters, and the row spacing is about 70 centimeters. Plants are transferred from individual containers to the beds along with the earthen lump, without dividing them.
The main rules for caring for plants are: regular and abundant watering, constant loosening of the soil and timely feeding.
Super peppers in a greenhouse on 6 acres !. Garden World site
The best way to grow peppers in the greenhouse and outdoors
Sweet pepper has long won the hearts of gardeners and gardeners. How else? This bright vegetable is good both by itself, and in fresh salads, and in preparations for the winter. And in terms of vitamin C content, bell peppers are generally a champion!
Growing pepper does not require extra effort from us. Moreover, you can get a good harvest of pepper in different ways: choose the varieties wisely, grow seedlings according to all the rules, plant peppers in warm beds, and so on.
Today we bring to your attention one of the most effective ways to grow pepper in a greenhouse and open field. The success of this particular agricultural technique is based on careful preparation of soil and seeds.
Description of the variety and characteristics
Pepper Mammoth of average ripening period, from 120 to 150 days. The ripening time depends on the growing conditions of the pepper.
Fruits are large, box-shaped. Their weight ranges from one hundred to three hundred grams. Length up to fifteen centimeters, they look larger in the photo.
Technical maturity occurs when the peppers acquire a dark green color; when fully ripe, they are red. The taste is juicy, sweetish.
A distinctive feature: the fruits of the Mammoth pepper grow from the bottom up and from a distance resemble a trunk.
The crop is used for salads and canning; it is better to use other varieties for stuffing.
Pepper plant Mammoth of the standard type, that is, it has a pronounced central trunk. The height of an adult pepper ranges from fifty to sixty centimeters.
In 2007, it was officially registered by Rosreestr as a crop for open ground and greenhouses, subsidiary farms, but there is no information about official zoning yet.
There is experience in growing in areas with a fairly cold climate, for example, in the Barnaul area. However, cultivation there was carried out in a greenhouse from start to finish.
In an open way, Mammoth pepper is cultivated in warm regions - Krasnodar Territory, Stavropol Territory, and the Republic of Dagestan. At the same time, a seedling planting method is used, that is, already mature seedlings are planted.
The declared yield is up to 6 kg per square meter for greenhouses, up to five for open ground.
Choosing a variety of pepper
The choice of a variety for cultivation should be based not only on the taste of the fruit, but also on its purpose. If the pepper is planned to be consumed fresh, then large fleshy fruits with thick walls are suitable. For blanks for the winter, it is better to choose smaller and denser ones.
Another nuance is the climatic landing zone. For example, in the Urals, with the help of modern covering means: different types of films and polycarbonate, you can achieve high yields. Grow even late varieties of foreign selection. However, it is better to choose early and mid-season peppers. Low-growing bushes are suitable in height for cold regions.
To understand the features of each variety and determine the choice, the table will help:
When planting several different varieties, it is important to plant them in remote areas of the vegetable garden or separate them with other tall crops such as tomatoes or corn. This is due to the rapid transfer of pollen from some bushes to others.
The best varieties of peppers for open ground
- Pepper "Corvette" is bred in two colors: red and orange. Ripening period 105-115 days. Sprawling bushes, 50-60 cm high. The skin is glossy, the walls are 6-7 mm thick. The mass of vegetables is 60-80 grams, but the yield from 1 m² is 6-7 kg. Pepper is not subject to viral diseases.
- The "Lemon Miracle" variety pleases with its bright lemon color and excellent taste. Fruits grow in weight 180 g. The thickness of the pericardium is within 6-8 mm. Pepper is resistant to sudden changes in weather conditions, therefore it is included in the group of the best varieties for open ground.
- "Golden Calf" is a varietal hybrid that has been specially adapted for planting in Siberian conditions in the open field. The bushes are not tall, 60-75 cm. The fruits resemble barrels, their weight is 250-500 grams. The walls are thick, up to 10 mm. Up to 14 peppers are tied on one plant. The "Golden Calf" is very massive, perfect for fresh and canned consumption.
- Pepper "Red Elephant" got its name because of the red color and length of the fruit, which reach 22 cm. The shape of the pepper is conical, drooping. Ripe vegetables grow in weight 130-200 grams. The plant is powerful, 80-90 cm high. From a square meter of plantings, the yield is 6-7 kg. Subject to any culinary and industrial processing.
- Pepper "Hercules" belongs to the group of versatile varieties that give a high yield, both in open and closed soil. The fruit ripening period from the moment of planting seedlings is 90-95 days. The vegetables are cuboid, 11-12 cm long. In biological ripeness, they reach a mass of 150-300 grams, the color of the fruits is red.
How and when to harvest peppers
The best sign of fruit ripeness is the bitterness level. To make it easier to navigate, gardeners recommend taking into account external signs:
- pods acquire a deep red / orange color (depending on the variety)
- foliage on the bushes turns yellow, the lower leaves dry out
- rub it with a pepper pod on the back of the hand. Ripe fruits are usually so bitter that the skin feels a slight burning sensation.
In most varieties, the fruits finally ripen by the end of September. Plucking the pods prematurely is not recommended. The hotter the pepper, the longer its shelf life. Sharp substances in fruits are a kind of preservatives. An early harvest of hot pepper can be preserved. For storage, the pods are cut along with the stalks (you need to work with gloves).
Pepper hydration features
The first watering is carried out immediately after planting in the ground. Then you need to irrigate every 4-5 days. If the planting fell on extreme heat, then moisturizing is carried out more often - once every 1-2 days. In this mode, watering is organized immediately after planting, during flowering and before the first harvest. Then take a break until new buds form and repeat again. When flowering, the ox is not allowed to hit the leaves and flowers.
Top dressing of cucumbers is applied at the root once a month instead of one of the waterings. Immediately after planting, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are supplied, and during the period of fruit formation, phosphorus and potassium substrates are used. At the same time, nitrogen-containing, phosphorus and potash fertilizers should not be used more than twice a month. Ash is an excellent substitute fertilizer. The vitamin content is high.
Signs of improper watering:
- slowdown in plant growth, its lethargy
- dropping and drying of flowers and ovaries
- the appearance of white or black spots.
Symptoms of excess and lack of watering of pepper are similar, so you will have to make your own conclusions about what exactly hurt the plant. Examples can be studied in the video.
Excess moisture provokes:
- mold formation
- late blight
The frequency of wetting the pepper is determined by the growing conditions. The best way to irrigate is drip. Water should be supplied gradually and in small doses, then it will not harm the plant.