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Growing cloudberries in the garden
Well, the gardeners have grown to the extreme ... It would seem that everything is already in our beds, in our gardens, on our favorite six hundred square meters, but, no, not everything has been dragged from the forest ... And it's all the fault of laziness. Well, a person does not want to go somewhere, it is far to the market, and it is expensive there, and even further to the forest. Yes, and after work, there is no strength left, and on weekends I want to relax, and not to roam around the swamps, to feed mosquitoes. In addition, there are many who wish, so there is no certainty that you will find something. And I still really want to eat a fresh berry. At the mention of blueberries, lingonberries, cranberries, blueberries, redberries, cloudberries, saliva immediately comes up.
So the man came up with the idea to keep everything at his side. This is how the blueberries, which have already become familiar and ordinary, and blueberries with lingonberries, and even cranberries with redberry... But cloudberries in the garden are still a rarity! While abroad all these cultures are already commonplace. The largest number of cloudberry plantations is concentrated in America and the Scandinavian countries, where industrial plantings of these plants have already been created and even the first varieties have been obtained.
Cloudberry - this is a modest representative of a truly royal huge family Rosaceae... It is a low, rarely exceeding a height of 35 cm, a perennial herb with long, creeping rhizomes. The fruits resemble raspberries (prefabricated drupes), but they are lighter in color. Cloudberry is a fairly winter-hardy crop, but not everything is so simple with it, northern plants are even more difficult than southern ones, they adapt to our conditions. From the correspondence on the forums, I managed to find out that it does not grow either in the Leningrad region, or in the Moscow region, and even further south. However, at the same time, there are reliable facts that in the conditions of the Voronezh, Lipetsk, Oryol, Tambov regions, this plant feels excellent.
Reproduction of cloudberries
Today, the simplest way to get good seedlings and thereby provide yourself with berries without any expense and special efforts is to "steal" cloudberry bushes from the forest. It is better to go to this "business" with the whole family and choose the best plants, those that attract large and beautiful berries, and the taste, of course, is of no less importance. Having noticed the desired specimen, it must be carefully, better with a lump of earth, to be dug from its "familiar" place. In this case, you can immediately move the cloudberry plant into a flower pot or, even better, into a paper bag, which can then be planted in the ground without removing the seedling from it, which will save the root system from unnecessary injuries, and the paper will quickly dissolve in the soil.
There is also a way, it is more humane, but it already requires a lot of trouble. It is not for the lazy - to cut the cuttings of cloudberry plants in the forest and root them at home in a greenhouse. Cut small cuttings - 12-13 cm, then plant them in a nutritious substrate, cover them with a film on top and water them abundantly. The main thing is to prevent the soil from drying out in the summer. It will be very good if the humidity of the air can also be kept at a high level. By the fall, the cuttings will take root, and they can be transplanted to a permanent place, or they can be left in the greenhouse for another season, where the plants will get stronger and will already be more prepared for transplantation.
You can get cloudberry plants and using seed reproduction, however, in this case, the resulting plants will be very different from those from which you collected the seeds, and not always for the better, but often the other way around ... Well, finally, you can just go and buy a varietal seedling, but here's the bad luck - there are no our varieties , and imported, most likely, will freeze out, unable to withstand our harsh and long winters. It's worth a try, though.
Soil preparation for cloudberries
The place where your pets will grow is chosen based on the conditions in which the seedling was before you dug it out or cut the cuttings. Favorite soils for cloudberries are moist, slightly acidic, sufficiently fertile soils with good aeration and light. It is also necessary to remember that almost all forest and even marsh inhabitants (including cloudberries) have a kind of helper in the form of mycorrhiza - these are useful to the plant, and to the soil, too, fungi that are located on the roots and contribute to a more stable plant development, especially on insufficiently rich soils. When planting plants, you can add soil from where you brought it from. If reproduction takes place using cuttings, then these beneficial microorganisms can be purchased at a flower shop or in a store where seedlings or seedlings are sold, they are inexpensive, and the benefits from them are great.
In the future, industrial cultivation of cloudberries is also possible, as, for example, in Finland, where the world's first experiment on greenhouse cultivation of cloudberries is underway, and the first positive results have already been obtained. The essence of this method is that cloudberry seedlings, which are purchased so far from us, in Russia, are planted in greenhouses, where certain conditions favorable for plants are created. As a result, with proper care and maintaining constant humidity, temperature, illumination, which are controlled by high-precision sensors, it is possible to obtain cloudberries almost all year round with a harvest of up to 8 kilograms from 100 square meters of the area allotted for this crop. The profit from this method of growing is significant, because today the prices for cloudberries there range from 8 to 10 euros, that is, almost 400 rubles per kilogram! Our scientists were also involved in such an economically attractive experiment. In the future, as a result of selection, it is possible that promising cloudberry plants will be obtained, and then varieties will be obtained.
Cloudberry is a useful, valuable, unpretentious crop, growing it on your site, you will not go wrong!
There are others little known fruit and berry cropsthat can be grown on your site.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Researcher, Department of Berry Crops, GNU VNIIS im. I.V. Michurin,
member of the R&D Academy
Photo by the author
Growing cloudberries - garden and vegetable garden
A LITTLE HISTORY
Wild carrot with a thin spine, it is widely found in the Mediterranean countries and in the European part of the CIS.
Mankind has been consuming this root crop for 4000 years. The ancient Germans believed that if you fill a cup with steamed carrots and take them to the forest, then in the morning there will be an ingot of gold in it. It's tempting. But where to find such a forest?
And in the Middle Ages, the triumphal procession of carrots continued, but - in the dining rooms of kings and nobles: it was considered a delicacy until the 16th century. Later Europeans became breed carrot everywhere, one of its best varieties - carotel - was bred. In Russia, carrots have been known since the time of the "Tsar Pea". Until winter, fresh roots were often kept in honey, and doctors prescribed butter with carrot juice. Thus, methods were found that made it possible to preserve all valuable substances and vitamins in carrots, although nothing was known about vitamins at that time.
|A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF|
Carrot - biennial cross-pollinated plant of the celery family (Umbrella). In the 1st year of life, forms a rosette of leaves and a root crop, in the 2nd - a stem, inflorescences, flowers and seeds. Root crops have a variety of shapes (cylindrical, conical, round) and color (orange with an orange or yellow heart, yellow pinkish).
The duration of the growing season for plants of the 1st year of life is 90-110 days, of the 2nd year of life - 110-120 days.
Main varieties. Of the early varieties in Belarus, Nantskaya 4 and Nantskaya 14 are zoned. Among the varieties of medium ripening - Vitaminnaya 6, as well as Losinoostrovskaya 13 (Brest, Minsk and Mogilev regions). They are distinguished by their yield, good taste and keeping quality. Other varieties are cultivated Chantenay 2461, Early Gribovskaya 1355, Incomparable, Floker and others.
It is interesting that in China and Japan varieties are cultivated, the plants of which are up to 1 m (!) Long.
NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE
Carrots are rightly called the elixir of youth: they contain a large amount of carotene (provitamin A). Carrots stimulate the activity of cells, participate in their regular renewal, and slow down the formation of wrinkles. Beta-carotene prevents bowel cancer.
Carotene does not dissolve in water, but only in fats, so it is best and most fully absorbed if you cook carrots in milk, sour cream, butter or vegetable oil. On the other hand, boiled carrots contain 34% more antioxidants than raw carrots. Antioxidants strengthen the immune system (especially in the elderly), stimulate the growth of healthy cells, and reduce the risk of cancer. Carrot juice and grated root vegetables cleanse the blood, remove toxins and metal salts from the body, and normalize metabolism.
No wonder the "red maiden" is called the elixir of youth.
The most valuable carotenoid - beta carotene - and mineral salts are more favorably combined in roots of intense orange color. Root crops also contain a set of vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E, PP, etc.), sugars, mineral salts of potassium, sodium, calcium, manganese, phosphorus, iron. With the help of carrots, they successfully fight hypovitaminosis A, in which the gastrointestinal tract, skin, hair and nails suffer, and visual acuity decreases.
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS
Seeds germinate at temperatures above 3 ° C, but the optimal temperature is 18-22 ° C with a humidity of 80-85%.
The highest yields of good quality can be obtained on sandy loam and light loamy soils, as well as on peatlands with a powerful humus horizon.
Carrots are drought tolerant but responsive to irrigation. It is necessary to maintain optimal soil moisture, because Abundant watering after a long period of drought causes root crops to crack.
AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING
Carrot makes good use of fertilizers applied under the predecessor. Fresh manure should not be applied under the carrots, otherwise the roots will branch strongly and become ugly.
Sowing dates can be extended from the first ten days of April to the end of May. It should be borne in mind that early sowing root crops ripen better, contain less nitrates, but often outgrow and are stored worse. For winter storage, it is best to sow carrots in the first half of May. For summer sowing, water recharge irrigation is carried out.
The sowing pattern can be one-line with a row spacing of 45 cm or two-line -62 + 8 cm, the seeding depth is 2-3 cm.To ensure the vertical growth of root crops, it is advisable to prepare ridges with a height of 18-20 cm.
In order to obtain earlier and more friendly shoots, the seeds are soaked in water until they swell completely, solutions of trace elements or growth-stimulating drugs (epin, hydrohumate, oxyhumate, etc.) can be used. Before sowing, the seeds are mixed with dry sand, which avoids thinning and also reduces seed consumption.
Care includes weed control, loosening of row spacings. To avoid greening the upper part of the root crop, they are huddled without falling asleep at the point of growth.
Top dressing is carried out only under adverse weather conditions (cold summers, poor soils). Nitrogen fertilization is carried out no later than the first decade of July, potash - at the beginning of August.
Cleaning is carried out before the onset of frost. Do not allow withering or freezing of root crops, because they can completely die during storage.
When stored, carrots are affected by various types of rot. In some areas, it is damaged by a carrot fly and a carrot beetle.
TO YOUR TABLE
If a carrot grew up ugly, non-standard, do not rush to reject it. It is necessary to wash, peel, cut into cubes and dry for 10-15 minutes. in the oven, then air dry. Store like any dried fruit. And in winter, before cooking, pour boiling water over the dry carrots for 1-2 hours. The water in which the carrots were steamed can be added to this dish.
Recipes with carrots - a great many. But does every mistress know these?
Delicious (and rare) recipes
Carrot salad , horseradish and apples. Wash carrots and horseradish, peel, rinse and grate. Wash sour apples, peel, core and also grate. Mix all this, put in jars, fill with brine, cover with lids and sterilize for 5-10 minutes. at low boiling water, then seal and cool.
For brine: for 1 liter of water - 60-80 g of salt, 80-100 g of sugar, 200 g of 9% vinegar.
Pie filling. Boil the carrots, peel, cut into small cubes. Chop boiled eggs, mix with carrots, salt, add sugar, melted butter to taste, drive in raw quail eggs to combine the ingredients and mix everything. (According to the Estonian recipe, chopped carrots are stewed with fat and seasoned with fried onions.)
For 800 g of boiled carrots - 3-4 raw quail eggs, 40-50 g of butter, 2-3 tbsp. tablespoons of fat, 1-2 onions, salt and sugar to taste.
Carrot and currant or cranberry salad. Wash carrots, peel, grate on a coarse grater. Wash the berries and rub through a sieve, mix with carrots, season with salt and sugar. Put in a salad bowl, pour over sour cream and season with herbs.
For 400 g of carrots - 150 g of red currants or cranberries, 1/2 cup sour cream, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of chopped parsley, salt and sugar to taste.
Growing green peas: planting and care
Green peas are a delicious crop. Often the fruits of green peas in pods ripen in gardens in June.
Although other vegetables and fruits at this time on the backyard plots are still just ripening. It is also added to the first courses, various salads are also made from it, but most of all the juicy fruits of raw peas are adored by children.
Besides nutritional value, peas are also a very important green manure in the garden. Thanks to microorganisms and the root system, it actively accumulates atmospheric nitrogen, which, after decomposition of the plant, enters the soil and enriches it with this necessary element.
Peas themselves are a cold-resistant and unpretentious crop. If you sow it into the soil early, then the young shoots of peas will not be afraid of night spring frosts. It is also noticed that the soil in which you will sow peas should not be over-fertilized. Since in this case, a large green mass can grow, and there will be few fruit-bearing pods themselves.
Therefore, you can plant peas already in early May, and some summer residents plant early ripening varieties even at the beginning of July. Remember that peas are very fond of the sun and moisture. Therefore, for planting seeds, choose the sunny side of your garden, and after introducing the seeds themselves into the soil, try to water the crops abundantly and daily.
Peas are an unpretentious plant, so they do not require special care. Just remember to periodically weed and water it, and collect the pods with young sweet green peas in time. Since if you do this not quite in time, then the peas can become dry and hard, and various pests can infect its pods.
Remember that peas are a branchy plant. Therefore, peas are constantly growing upward.It is recommended that after the sprouts of peas appear, drive the pegs near it and tie the sprouts themselves so that it can grow up without any problems. There are many ways to tie peas, so choose the one that suits you best.
Remember that peas bloom within a month after germination, and a few weeks after flowering, they will have pods with fresh young peas. But do not pick all the pods at once, but leave a few pods for them to fully ripen. And then you will have seed for the next year.
Features of arctotis
In nature, arctotis is represented by shrubs and herbaceous plants. On the surface of foliage and shoots there is a dense pubescence of white or silver color. Alternately or oppositely located leaf plates have a wavy or notched-toothed shape. Saucer-shaped inflorescences-baskets in diameter reach 50-80 mm, outwardly they are very similar to chamomile or gerbera. Single flowers are located on long peduncles, they include marginal ligulate flowers of purple, yellow, white or pink color, as well as tubular median flowers, painted in purple, purple or brown. The composition of the multi-row inflorescence wrapper includes many scales. The fruit is a brownish-gray seed with a tuft. The seeds remain viable for 2 years.
Arctotis is a perennial, annual and biennial. Perennial species in regions with a relatively cool climate are grown as annuals.